This tutorial will show you how to add a new user in MySQL and grant different types of privileges to a MySQL database.
MySQL server allows us to create numerous user accounts and grant appropriate privileges so that the users can access and manage databases. Once you have MySQL installed on the server, you need to create a database and additional user accounts.
To run the following commands, first, you need to log into the MySQL Server with the MySQL root account.
mysql -u root -p
How to Create a New MySQL User
CREATE USER statement creates a new user in the MySQL database server. Here is the basic syntax of the statement:
CREATE USER 'username'@'hostname' IDENTIFIED BY 'password';
password with your desired username and password in the syntax above.
localhost if you want the user to be able to connect to MySQL Server only from the localhost, which means “this computer.” If you want the user to be able to connect from any host, use the
% wildcard as the hostname.
For example, we will create a user with the name
james and the password
MyStrongPass123 using the following command:
CREATE USER 'james'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'MyStrongPass123';
However, this user will not be able to work with any of the MySQL databases until they are granted additional privileges.
How to Grant Privileges to a MySQL User
After successfully creating the new user, we can grant privileges to this new user. In most cases, you’ll be granting privileges to MySQL users based on the particular database that the account should have access to.
There are multiple types of privileges that can be granted to a user account. You can find a complete list of privileges supported by MySQL here.
ALL PRIVILEGES– Grants all privileges to a user account.
ALTER– The user can change the structure of a table or database.
CREATE– The user account is allowed to create databases and tables.
DROP– The user account is allowed to drop databases and tables.
DELETE– The user account is allowed to delete rows from a specific table.
INSERT– The user account is allowed to insert rows into a specific table.
SELECT– The user account is allowed to read a database.
UPDATE– The user account is allowed to update table rows.
To provide a user with access to the MySQL database and give permissions, you generally need to use the following
GRANT permission_type ON privilege_level TO 'username'@'hostname';
For example, to grant all privileges to the user
james on the
jamesdb database, use the following command:
GRANT ALL PRIVILEGES ON jamesdb.* TO 'james'@'localhost';
However, type the following to grant only
INSERT privileges to the user
james on the
GRANT SELECT, INSERT ON jamesdb.* TO 'james'@'localhost';
Furthermore, if you want to grant access not to the entire database but only to a single table, you can achieve this as shown below.
For example, let’s grant
SELECT privileges to the user
james only to the
salaries table on the
GRANT SELECT ON employees.salaries TO 'james'@'localhost';
Creating a New MySQL Superuser
In some situations, you may need to create a superuser with permissions similar to the MySQL root user.
So, to grant a user with the same privileges as the MySQL root user, use the following command, which gives global privileges to the user
james connecting via
GRANT ALL ON *.* TO 'james'@'localhost' WITH GRANT OPTION;
Change a MySQL User Account Password
Suppose you want to change the password for the
james user that connects from the
NewStrongPass123; you need to execute the following SQL statement:
ALTER USER 'james'@'localhost' IDENTIFIED BY 'NewStrongPass123';
In the above SQL statement, make sure to change
james with your database user and
localhost with the user’s host.
Show Privileges for a User in MySQL
In MySQL, you can use the
SHOW GRANTS command to display all grant information for a user. Let’s take some examples.
The following statement uses the
SHOW GRANTS statement to display the privileges granted to the current user:
To view the grants for a MySQL user, you can use
SHOW GRANTS while specifying the username:
SHOW GRANTS FOR 'james'@'localhost';
Revoke Privileges from a MySQL User Account
The syntax to revoke one or more privileges from a user account is almost identical to when granting privileges.
If you need to revoke privileges from the user
james on a
jamesdb database, apply the syntax that is similar to the one you used when granting permissions:
REVOKE ALL PRIVILEGES ON jamesdb.* FROM 'james'@'localhost';
Remove User from MySQL
Instead of revoking the privileges, you may want to remove that user. So, you can remove a database user using the following command:
DROP USER 'james'@'localhost';
The command above will remove the user
james and all of its privileges.
Saving Your Changes
As a final step, each time you update or change permission, use the
FLUSH PRIVILEGES command.
After completing this tutorial, you should have a sense of how to add new users and grant them a variety of permissions in a MySQL database.
If you have any questions or feedback, feel free to leave a comment.